Carlson E., Hoffmann R. 2010, Population Research and Policy Review, 30:3, 355-379.
Death rates for working-age men in European state socialist countries
deviated from general improvements in survival observed in the rest of Europe
during the 20th century. The magnitude of structural labor force changes across
countries correlates with lagged increases in death rates for men in the working
ages. This pattern is consistent with a hypothesis that hyper-development of heavy
industry and stagnation (even contraction) of the service sector created anomic
conditions leading to unhealthy lifestyles and self-destructive behavior among men
moving from primary-sector to secondary-sector occupations. Occupational contrasts
within countries similarly show concentration of rising male death rates
among blue collar workers. Collapse of state socialist systems produced rapid
corrections in labor force structure after 1990, again correlated with a fading of the
state socialist mortality syndrome in following decades.